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  • Hopping and Flipping of RNA Polymerase on DNA during Recycling for Reinitiation after Intrinsic Termination in Bacterial Transcription
Hopping and Flipping of RNA Polymerase on DNA during Recycling for Reinitiation after Intrinsic Termination in Bacterial Transcription
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Hopping and Flipping of RNA Polymerase on DNA during Recycling for Reinitiation after Intrinsic Termination in Bacterial Transcription

Two fully completely different molecular mechanisms, sliding and hopping, are employed by DNA-binding proteins for his or her one-dimensional facilitated diffusion on nonspecific DNA areas until reaching their specific purpose sequences. Whereas it has been controversial whether or not or not RNA polymerases (RNAPs) use one-dimensional diffusion in concentrating on their promoters for transcription initiation, two newest single-molecule analysis discovered that post-terminational RNAPs use one-dimensional diffusion for his or her reinitiation on the similar DNA molecules.

Escherichia coli RNAP, after synthesizing and releasing product RNA at intrinsic termination, largely stays positive on DNA and diffuses in every forward and backward directions for recycling, which facilitates reinitiation on shut by promoters. However, it has remained unsolved which mechanism of one-dimensional diffusion is employed by recycling RNAP between termination and reinitiation. Single-molecule fluorescence measurements on this analysis reveal that post-terminational RNAPs endure hopping diffusion all through recycling on DNA, as their one-dimensional diffusion coefficients improve with rising salt concentrations.

We furthermore uncover that reinitiation can occur on promoters positioned in sense and antisense orientations with comparable efficiencies, so reinitiation effectivity depends upon completely on distance reasonably than route of recycling diffusion. This further discovering confirms that orientation change or flipping of RNAP with respect to DNA successfully occurs as anticipated from hopping diffusion. The RNA world hypothesis describes a state of affairs the place adolescence varieties relied on RNA to govern every inheritance and catalyze useful chemical reactions.

Earlier to the emergence of enzymes capable of replicating the RNA genome, a nonenzymatic replication course of would have been important to impress Darwinian Evolution. However, the one-pot nonenzymatic RNA chemical copying of templates with mixed-sequences is insufficient to generate strand merchandise prolonged adequate to encode useful carry out. Utilizing alternate (RNA-like) genetic polymers would possibly overcome hurdles associated to RNA copying, and extra our understanding of nonenzymatic copying chemistry. This protocol describes the nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates into N3’→P5′ phosphoramidate DNA (3′-NP-DNA).

Dicer-like proteins have an effect on Arabidopsis root microbiota unbiased of RNA-directed DNA methylation

Crops are naturally associated to root microbiota, which are microbial communities influential to host well being. Thus, it is extremely vital understand how crops administration root microbiota. Epigenetic parts regulate the readouts of genetic information and consequently many vital natural processes. However, it has been elusive whether or not or not RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) impacts root microbiota assembly. By making use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we investigated root microbiota of Arabidopsis mutants defective inside the canonical RdDM pathway, along with dcl234 that harbors triple mutation inside the Dicer-like proteins DCL3, DCL2, and DCL4, which produce small RNAs for RdDM. Alpha selection analysis confirmed reductions in microbe richness from the soil to roots, reflecting the selectivity of crops on root-associated micro organism.
The dcl234 triple mutation significantly decreases the levels of Aeromonadaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, whereas it’ll improve the abundance of many alternative micro organism households inside the root microbiota. However, mutants of the other examined key avid gamers inside the canonical RdDM pathway confirmed associated microbiota as Col-0, indicating that the DCL proteins affect root microbiota in an RdDM-independent technique. Subsequently gene analysis by shotgun sequencing of root microbiome indicated a selective stress on microbial resistance to plant safety inside the dcl234 mutant.

In keeping with the altered plant-microbe interactions, dcl234 displayed altered characters, along with the mRNA and sRNA transcriptomes that collectively highlighted altered cell wall group and up-regulated safety, the decreased cellulose and callose deposition in root xylem, and the restructured profile of root exudates that supported the alterations in gene expression and cell wall modifications. Our findings reveal an important place of the DCL proteins in influencing root microbiota through built-in regulation of plant safety, cell wall compositions, and root exudates. Our outcomes moreover reveal that the canonical RdDM is dispensable for Arabidopsis root microbiota. These findings not solely arrange a connection between root microbiota and plant epigenetic parts however as well as highlight the complexity of plant regulation of root microbiota. Video abstract.

Hopping and Flipping of RNA Polymerase on DNA during Recycling for Reinitiation after Intrinsic Termination in Bacterial Transcription

Noncoding RNAs involved in DNA Methylation and Histone methylation, and acetylation in Diabetic Vascular Issues

Diabetes is a metabolic dysfunction and its incidence continues to be rising. Diabetic vascular points set off predominant diabetic mobility and embody accelerated atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular points by means of fairly a couple of mechanisms along with the induction of oxidative stress, irritation, metabolic alterations, and irregular proliferation of EC and angiogenesis. Before now decade, epigenetic modifications have attracted further consideration as they participate inside the growth of diabetic vascular points no matter managed glucose ranges and regulate gene expression with out altering the genomic sequence.

DNA methylation and histone methylation, and acetylation are vital epigenetic modifications and their underlying mechanisms in diabetic vascular complication are nonetheless urgently wished to be investigated. Non-coding RNAs (nc RNAs) harking back to micro RNAs (miRNAs), prolonged non-coding RNA (lncRNAs), and spherical RNAs (circ RNAs) have been found to exert transcriptional regulation in diabetic vascular complication. Although nc RNAs aren’t thought-about as epigenetic components, they’re involved in epigenetic modifications.

Their cross-talks may present novel insights into the pathology of diabetic vascular points. Earlier analysis have reported that nucleic acid methylation is a crucial side in coronary heart issues, and most analysis primarily focused on sequencing and biochemical evaluation. Proper right here we developed an Extraordinarily effectivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  methodology for the quantification analysis of the dissociative epigenetic modified nucleosides in Myocardial Infarction (MI) SD rats from fully completely different durations (1 week, 4 weeks, eight weeks) after the surgical process.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine: Jejunum

P1236230Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Small Intestine Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10377 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human small intestine tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human small intestine tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the small intestine tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The small intestine tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine

C1236226Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Liver

R1236149Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine: Duodenum

C1236101Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine: Ileum

C1236227Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine: Jejunum

C1236230Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Colon

R1236090Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Kidney

R1236142Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Lung

R1236152Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Diaphragm

R1236169Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Pancreas

R1236188Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Rectum

R1236206Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Spleen

R1236246Lcs-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Lupus: Small Intestine

R1236226Lup-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Liver

P1236149Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total RNA from Human Tumor Tissue: Small Intestine

R1235226-10 10 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Mouse Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

R1334226-50 50 ug
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Rat Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

R1434226-50 50 ug
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Genomic DNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Small Intestine, from a single donor

D1236226Lcs 50 ug
EUR 446
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

R1234226-50 50 ug
EUR 178
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Monkey (Rhesus) Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

R1534226-50 50 ug
EUR 194
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Monkey (Cynomolgus) Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

R1534226-Cy 50 ug
EUR 194
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Adrenal

P1236004Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Appendix

P1236006Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

P1236035Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Colon

P1236090Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Esophagus

P1236106Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Gallbladder

P1236118Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Heart

P1236122Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Kidney

P1236142Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Lung

P1236152Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Diaphragm

P1236169Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Pancreas

P1236188Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Prostate

P1236201Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Rectum

P1236206Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Skin

P1236218Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Spleen

P1236246Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Testis

P1236260Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Thyroid

P1236265Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total RNA from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

R1234101-50 50 ug
EUR 178
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Ileum

R1234227-50 50 ug
EUR 178
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Jejunum

R1234230-50 50 ug
EUR 178
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Monkey (Rhesus) Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

R1534101-50 50 ug
EUR 316
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Monkey (Cynomolgus) Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

R1534101-Cy 50 ug
EUR 316
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Monkey (Rhesus) Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Ileum

R1534227-50 50 ug
EUR 194
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Lymph Node

P1236161Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Spinal Cord

P1236234Lcs 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Liver Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10358 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human liver tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human liver tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the liver tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The liver tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Total RNA from Lupus: Liver

R1236149Lup-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Human Adult Normal Tissue 5 Donor Pool: Small Intestine

R1234226-P 50 ug
EUR 328
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total Protein from Human Tumor Tissue: Small Intestine

P1235226 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Mouse Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

P1334226 1 mg
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Liver

C1236149Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Liver Membrane Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10671 0.1 mg
EUR 626.75
Description: Human liver tissue membrane protein lysate was prepared by isolating the membrane protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human liver tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The membrane protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated liver tissue membrane protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated liver tissue membrane protein is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody to confirm there is no signal or very weak signal.

Small Intestine Lysate

1308 0.1 mg
EUR 191
Description: Small intestine tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Small Intestine Lysate

1408 0.1 mg
EUR 191
Description: Small Intestine tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Small Intestine Lysate

1468 0.1 mg
EUR 191
Description: Small Intestine tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in modified RIPA buffer (150 mM sodium chloride, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholic acid, 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 5 μg/ml of aprotinin, 5 μg/ml of leupeptin. Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined with Bio-Rad protein assay. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Total Protein from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine

P1234226 1 mg
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Tumor Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

P1235101 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Diabetic Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

P1236101Dia 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Diabetic Tissue: Small Intestine: Ileum

P1236227Dia 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Diabetic Tissue: Small Intestine: Jejunum

P1236230Dia 1 mg
EUR 461
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Brain Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10124 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human brain tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human brain tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the brain tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The brain tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Adrenal Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10315 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human adrenal tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human adrenal tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the adrenal tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The adrenal tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Appendix Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10317 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human appendix tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human appendix tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the appendix tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The appendix tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Colon Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10334 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human colon tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human colon tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the colon tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The colon tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Duodenum Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10337 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human duodenum tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human duodenum tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the duodenum tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The duodenum tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Esophagus Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10339 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human esophagus tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human esophagus tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the esophagus tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The esophagus tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Gallbladder Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10340 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human gallbladder tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human gallbladder tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the gallbladder tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The gallbladder tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Heart Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10343 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human heart tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human heart tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the heart tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The heart tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Kidney Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10356 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human kidney tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human kidney tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the kidney tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The kidney tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Lung Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10363 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human lung tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human lung tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the lung tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The lung tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Diaphragm Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10368 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human diaphragm tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human diaphragm tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the diaphragm tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The diaphragm tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Pancreas Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10372 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human pancreas tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human pancreas tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the pancreas tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The pancreas tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Prostate Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10374 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human prostate tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human prostate tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the prostate tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The prostate tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Rectum Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10375 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human rectum tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human rectum tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the rectum tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The rectum tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Skin Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10376 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human skin tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human skin tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the skin tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The skin tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Ileum Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10380 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human small intestine: Ileum tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human small intestine: Ileum tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the small intestine: Ileum tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The small intestine: Ileum tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Jejunum Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10382 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human small intestine: Jejunum tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human small intestine: Jejunum tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the small intestine: Jejunum tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The small intestine: Jejunum tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Spleen Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10385 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human spleen tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human spleen tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the spleen tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The spleen tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Testis Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10389 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human testis tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human testis tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the testis tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The testis tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Thyroid Liver Cirrhosis Lysate

XBL-10390 0.1 mg
EUR 663.5
Description: Human thyroid tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization using a proprietary technique. The tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The human thyroid tissue total protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, Sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the thyroid tissue pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The thyroid tissue is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Membrane Protein from Liver Cirrhosis: Liver

P3236149Lcs 0.1 mg
EUR 408
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Paraffin Tissue Section - Liver Cirrhosis: Liver

T2236149Lcs 5 slides
EUR 257
Description: Our tissue products are produced by strictly following the IRB ethical standards and procedures and from highest quality tissues. Immediately after collection the tissues are placed in liquid nitrogen and examined by certified pathologists. The thickness of each individual section is ~5um. They are Hematoxylin and Eosin stained and quality tested by immunostaining with anti-beta-actin antibodies. Our tissue products are suitable for various studies on cellular level (RNA localization, Protein expression, etc.) on both normal and pathological cases. It is also an excellent control and educational tool.

Total RNA from Human Tumor Tissue: Liver

R1235149-50 50 ug
EUR 351
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Mouse Normal Tissue: Liver

R1334149-50 50 ug
EUR 152
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total RNA from Rat Normal Tissue: Liver

R1434149-50 50 ug
EUR 152
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression and regulation, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

Total Protein from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Duodenum

P1234101 1 mg
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Ileum

P1234227 1 mg
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Total Protein from Human Adult Normal Tissue: Small Intestine: Jejunum

P1234230 1 mg
EUR 214
Description: Can be used for various proteomics studies in both normal and pathological cases. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes. This product is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and has undergone SDS-PAGE quality control analysis. The protein is stored in a buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail fo prevent degradation.

Small Intestine Tumor Lysate

1338 0.1 mg
EUR 254
Description: Small Intestine tumor tissue lysate was prepared by homogenization in lysis buffer (10 mM HEPES pH7.9, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% glycerol, 1% NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors). Tissue and cell debris was removed by centrifugation. The product was boiled for 5 min in 1 x SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 12.5% glycerol, 1% sodium dodecylsulfate, 0.01% bromophenol blue) containing 50 mM DTT.

Small Intestine Cytoplasmic Lysate

XBL-10875 0.1 mg
EUR 227.75
Description: Human small intestine tissue cytoplasmic protein lysate was prepared by isolating the cytoplasmic protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human small intestine tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The cytoplasmic protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, glycerol, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated small intestine tissue cytoplasmic protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated small intestine tissue cytoplasmic protein is then Western analyzed by GAPDH antibody, and the expression level is consistent with each lot.

Small Intestine Membrane Lysate

XBL-10876 0.1 mg
EUR 516.5
Description: Human small intestine tissue membrane protein lysate was prepared by isolating the membrane protein from whole tissue homogenates using a proprietary technique. The human small intestine tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and then stored at -70°C. The membrane protein is provided in a buffer including HEPES (pH 7.9), MgCl2, KCl, EDTA, Sucrose, Glycerol, sodium deoxycholate, NP-40, and a cocktail of protease inhibitors. For quality control purposes, the isolated small intestine tissue membrane protein pattern on SDS-PAGE gel is shown to be consistent for each lot by visualization with coomassie blue staining. The isolated small intestine tissue membrane protein is then Western analyzed by either GAPDH or β-actin antibody to confirm there is no signal or very weak signal.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Brain

C1236035Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

cDNA from Liver Cirrhosis: Colon

C1236090Lcs 40 reactions
EUR 668
Description: Can be used for various studies in the realm of gene expression, both normal and pathological. It is an excellent control and suitable for educational purposes.

The samples for analysis have been obtained from coronary coronary heart tissue and blood of the rats. All the quantification outcomes are in distinction with the sham-operated group. Complete RNA and DNA have been isolated by enzymatic hydrolytic methods sooner than the UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The statistical analysis demonstrates the dynamic modifications of modified nucleosides in MI rats, and it confirmed good specificity, accuracy, stability and fewer samples have been wished inside the methodology. On this overview, we summarized the investigations of non-coding RNAs involved in DNA methylation and histone methylation and acetylation.